Now that my project three e portfolio is complete i will add all my references
Relivingmbadays (2013, June 28). Mintzberg?s Ten Managerial Roles | relivingmbadays. Retrieved June 11, 2013, from http://relivingmbadays.wordpress.com/2012/06/28/27/
MAW editor (2008, April 15). Mintzberg?s 10 Managerial Roles « Management at Work. Retrieved June 11, 2013, from http://management.atwork-network.com/2008/04/15/mintzberg%E2%80%99s-10-managerial-roles/
The Free Dictionary (n.d.). subordinates – definition of subordinates by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia. Retrieved July 11, 2013, from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/subordinates
The Communication Agenda (n.d.). CHAPTER 4 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND THE COMMUNICATION AGENDA. Retrieved June 11, 2013, from http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~renglish/377/notes/chapt04/
Barnett, S., & O’Rourke, S. (2011). Communication theory and processes in business. In Communication: Organisation and innovation (3rd ed.). Malaysia: Pearson.
Cherry, K. (2010, July 24). Self-Esteem – Psychology Definition of the Week. Retrieved June 11, 2013, from http://psychology.about.com/b/2010/07/24/self-esteem-psychology-definition-of-the-week.htm
The Free Dictionary (n.d.). Self awareness – definition of Self awareness by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 11, 2013, from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Self+awareness
Wikipedia (2013, May 26). Theory of the firm – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_the_firm#Transaction_cost_theory
Chilton-Towle, J. (2013, June 9). Half-price pets at SPCA | Otago Daily Times Online News : Otago, South Island, New Zealand & International News. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from http://www.odt.co.nz/news/dunedin/260185/half-price-pets-spca
Hubbard, J., Thomas, C. M., & Varnham, S. (2013). Principles of law for New Zealand business students (5th ed.). Auckland, N.Z: Pearson.
The theory of the firm consists of a number of economic theories. Identify which economic theory of the firm best explains the behaviour, market structure and decision making processes of the community organisation you are volunteering at.
Theory of the firm: consists of a number of economic theories that describe, explain, and predict the nature of the firm, company, or corporation, including its existence, behaviour, structure, and relationship to the market. (Wikipedia. 2013)
(Stewart, 2012, p. 115)
A Business is defined as “An organisation or economic system where goods and services are exchanged for one another or for money” (Business Dictionary, n.d.) This shows that SPCA is operating as a business as they are exchanging animals for money.
In Otago there are several other Business’s which sell animals such as puppies, kittens and rabbits in order to make an income. These include Pet Planet, The Pet Warehouse Ltd and Animal Attraction Ltd. As Otago SPCA relies on funds from animal sales for a proportion of their income, they are competing with these other firms to sell animals.
For this reason the Theory of the firm market structure which I believe best fits the Otago SPCA is monopolistic competition. Characteristics of a monopolistic competition market structure are as shown above:
• Many Sellers
• A differentiated product
• Limited Control Over price
• Weak control over quantity sold
• Weak barriers to entry of other firms
In the market for selling animals there are many players. As shown above there are at least three other business in Dunedin which are all competing in selling animals to make an income. As there is more than one or two sellers of animals in Dunedin and therefore New Zealand this rules out the possibility of SPCA Otago being a Monopoly or Duopoly.
Limited Control over Price:
As shown above consumers have many option when it comes to purchasing an animal. As the law of demand states “As price increases quantity demanded decreases”
So if SPCA Otago was to increase the price of their animals to an amount greater than their competition, then demand for SPCA’s goods will decrease and demand for their competitor’s animals will increase. So as a result of this SPCA has little control over price.
As SPCA has limited control over price of the good they sell this is not a characteristic of an oligopoly, duopoly or monopoly. Therefore these market structures don’t best describe them.
Weak barriers to entry:
To set up an organisation that sells animals there is weak barriers to entry. For someone to set up an animal shop they would simply need to find a premises to operate on and invest a small amount on capital. This is a characteristic of a monopolistic market structure. Oligopoly, duopoly and monopoly all have strong barriers to entry so therefore SPCA Otago cannot be one of these.
Otago SPCA is not the only buyer of a specific commodity or service therefore it is not a Monopsony market structure.
Otago SPCA has no control over the amount of animals they sell. They rely on their sales to be constant in order to meet continuous costs. As SPCA does not have complete pricing information about their competition they do not have perfect information, therefore they are not a perfect competition.
In conclusion SPCA Otago is acting as a monopolistic competition market structure as there is many sellers selling a similar good to them, they have limited control over the price over their good and there is minimal barriers to someone setting up a firm that sells animals.
SPCA Otago has been set up as an incorporated society. “An incorporated society is a group of at least 15 people associated for a legal purpose but not for pecuniary gain. As such, an incorporated society is not an appropriate structure for a business” (Hubbard, Thomas, & Varnham, 2013, p. 645).
As the main goal of Otago SPCA is to improve the lives of animals in the Otago region, encouraging the humane treatment of all animals and to prevent cruelty being inflicted upon them (SPCA Otago. n.d.). This shows us that SPCA Otago is not in business to make a profit and therefore is a not for profit organisation. A not for profit organisation is not allowed to make any profit, though they still have to make enough money to break even.
One macroeconomic factor that is currently impacting on the behaviour of SPCA Otago is the recent Global recession. As a result of the recent global recession un-employment in New Zealand increased. This would therefore increase the amount of available volunteers for SPCA and they would be able to pick the ones that would most benefit them.
In reflection, my time spent at SPCA Otago was a worthwhile and important experience. I was able to support my theory that what they do benefits the community as a whole and it showed me that all the community donations are going to good use.
Though while the SPCA staff work their hardest to maintain a high standard of animal welfare, many of the animals there are in need of training, commitment and attention in order to reach their potential. Whether that be a hunting dog or a house pet or someone’s best friend. Though without worthy owners to adopt them this simply cannot happen.
I would recommend to anyone to help out the SPCA in any way possible, because it is greatly appreciated by them and they will take any help they can get. I enjoyed my time working for SPCA Otago and would not hesitate to return any time.
Monday afternoon neared the end of my time at SPCA, but with still a couple of hours left yet there was still more work to do.
I continued to work alongside one of the Vet Nurses but this time we were dealing with the big dogs. Again working in a newly purpose built enclosure it made dealing with them fast and easy. We were required to firstly feed the dogs, before walking them over to their outdoor pens for the day.
Here the dogs are able to run and play like a dog should, but in doing this it showed me that a lot of these dogs are in need of attention and training. They are all full of potential but without an owner that can give them the time and attention they deserve, that potential simply can’t be released.
From here we returned to wash the dog enclosure down before replacing their drinking water and setting it up again, ready for the dogs for another night. This concluded my 15hours volunteering at SPCA Otago.
Monday 20 May 2013
A new day brought on new tasks to be completed, first up was the rabbits. Rabbits turned out to be one of the easier animals to care for, as their actions were minimal. I had to simply change their food and water, replace some of the straw and sweep up the passage way. Though this was a very simple job it felt good learning more aspects about the daily running procedures of SPCA Otago.
From here on I was asked to work alongside one of the SPCA Vet Nurses to clean the puppy enclosure. The puppy enclosure, being a new purpose built building makes handling the animals very easy, making the job faster. We had to move all the puppies out into the day run before hosing the pens down and replacing their water.
This showed me how much of a difference community donations can make when it comes to making the SPCA’s job easier, and I enjoyed working within this purpose build premises and with the animals it held.
An explanation of the influence of self-concept on the communication process and how self-esteem and self-awareness affect the communication process.
The communication process is the process in which information is transferred between two or more people. There are many factors which can influence the clarity and accuracy of the information. These include but are not limited to self-concept, self-esteem and self-awareness.
The Communication Process is defined as: “The sharing of meaningful information between two or more people with the goal of the receiver understanding the sender’s intended message” (Business Dictionary. n.d.)
Figure 3 (The Communication Agenda. n.d)
Self-Concept: “is knowing our unique personal qualities, whether we are funny, kind, intelligent, etc. Also, how people interact with us not only helps form our self-concept, it also affects our self-esteem” (Barnett. & O’Rourke. 2011, p. 15)
Self-concept is who we think we are, not only is it our gender and age etc, it is our personalities and qualities as well. There are three ways in which self-concept is developed. These are:
• Reflected image
• Comparison with others
• Comparison against our own standards.
Reflected image is how others behave towards us, we see our self-concept reflect and develop from significant moments from people around us like friends and family. For example if people listen to us when we speak we will think we are a good speaker, if they do not listen then we will think we are a bad speaker (Barnett. & O’Rourke. 2011)
Comparison with others is when we compare ourselves with people who are similar in some ways. This could include financial and education. For example if we receive a good score in a test and we compare that score with others and it turns out to be the best then this will increase what we think of ourselves, therefore our self-concept changes.
The third way to develop self-concept is comparison against our own standards. We continuously compere and judge ourselves. For example if we do a similar test two weeks apart but on the second test we score much better, then we will think higher of our self. Therefore increasing our self-concept.
In conclusion self-concept has an influence on the communication process as we are constantly changing it. It is the characteristics we perceive to have. In communication characteristics such as looking at someone while they’re talking, speaking clearly to others, confident public speaker are very usefull. If we think we have characteristics like this then we are more likely to perform them making the communication process simpler and clearer for both source and receiver.
Self Esteem: “is used to describe a person’s overall sense of self-worth or personal value. Self-esteem is often seen as a personality trait, which means that it tends to be stable and enduring” (Cherry. 2010.). Self-esteem may also be related to religious, social, ethnic or cultural influences.
To be a good communicator it is necessary to have good self-esteem as it makes it easier for others to relate to you. The self-esteem of employees in an organisation can be improved by
• Supportive Management Team
• Variety of work
• Striving for trust in a team
• Having faith in individual self-management
Poor self-esteem will lead to defensive behaviour, meaning people with poor self-esteem will contribute less in communications and meetings etc. Therefore is not as effective to an organisation. As workers achieve goals in an organisation their self-esteem will increase. (Barnett. & O’Rourke. 2011, p. 53)
Self- Awareness: means “Aware of oneself, including one’s traits, feelings, and behaviours” (The Free Dictionary. n.d.)
Self- awareness is how aware we are of how others see us or what they think of us. What we think of ourselves and what others think of us is not always the same thing. The more aware a person is of how others see them the more self-aware they are. If messages from people do not match our perceptions of our self/ what we think of our self we will usually either:
• Ignore the messages from others
• Change our behaviour so that others see us differently
• Change our self-concept to match the reflected image from others
(Barnett. & O’Rourke. 2011, p. 54)
High levels of self-awareness are better for effective communication as we know what others think of us, we can then change our self-concept and behaviour to communicate better.
“Self-awareness is important for effective communication, because we need a true picture of how we are perceived by others in order to evaluate, change or enhance our behaviour to make communication more effective” (Barnett. & O’Rourke. 2011, p. 54)
The remainder of the day included walking dogs, a very relaxing task on a hot Dunedin day. Topping up food and litter supplies in all the cat and kitten rooms as well as washing their main mode of transport around the grounds, a golf cart.
I found we were simply carrying out ‘fill in’ jobs as the majority of their work is at the beginning and end of the day when feeding is. Despite this these jobs needed to be done and by us doing it meant the SPCA staff could spend more time caring for the animals.
Soon enough it was 2pm again and afternoon feeding was to be undertaken. It’s hard to think that I only just started volunteering one day ago, as it seemed when it came to feeding time I knew everything about it, I was even placed with a new volunteer to show them the ropes. In my opinion this showed me that they knew I had confidence in what I was doing. 5pm came and all the jobs for the day were completed, another day was done.